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Introduction to using the Azure CLI

Contents

Logging into Azure

Log into Azure using az login. (Note that this is not necessary in Cloud Shell.)

You will be prompted to enter a code into https://aka.ms/devicelogin and then authenticate the session.

In the Windows Terminal you can double click the code to highlight. When text is highlighted then CTRL+C will copy to the clipboard. Use CTRL + Click on the URL to open and then CTRL+V to paste.

The session tokens survive for a number of days so if you are using a shared machine then always issue az logout at the end of your session.

See below if you have multiple Azure IDs and/or subscriptions.

Help

  • az shows the main help and list of the commands
  • az <command> --help shows help for that command
    • if there are subcommands then you can use the --help or -h at any level
  • az find -q <str> will search the index for commands containing <str>
    • e.g. az find -q image
  • the Azure CLI reference has a description of the available commands and parameters
  • most of the Azure documentation sections have examples and tutorials for CLI 2.0 alongside the Portal and PowerShell

The CLI includes tab auto-complete for both switches and values, which is very useful for auto-completing resource groups, resource names and long subscription descriptions.

Configure

Run az configure to initiate an interactive session to configure defaults for your output format, logging of sessions, data collection.

The --resource-group and --location switches are common to many commands. If you want to set default values then use az configure --default group=myRG location=westeurope.

The argument must be a space delimited list of key=value pairs, and defaults may be unset by a blank string, e.g. group=''.

The other way to default those switches is to export the AZURE_DEFAULTS_GROUP and AZURE_DEFAULTS_LOCATION environment variables within the current shell.

Output formats

At this point I will assume that you have some resource groups, and that some of those contain virtual machines.

The following command lists out your resource groups, each demonstrating the output formats available

Command Output
az group list --output table Human readable table
az group list --output json JSON output
az group list --output jsonc Coloured JSON output (includes control characters)
az group list --output tsv Tab seperated values
az group list --output yaml YAML format output
az group list --output yamlc Coloured YAML format output

You can also use “none” if you just need the return code and want to suppress output.

Any scripting should always specify the output format as CLI users can use the az configure command to set their preferred default output format.

A couple of points of note

  • The JSON and YAML output formats contains the most information about the resources
  • The JSON output is great when combined with jq
  • The jsonc and yaml outputs are more human readable
  • The table output shows a header. The columns (and the header name) can be customised using JMESPATH queries. More on those later.
  • The tsv output has more information than the table, but no headers. As it does not include quotes around the values, it makes it a good way of reading values into Bash variables, working well with the cut command in a pipeline. Again, for scripting I would highly recommend using the --query to specify the columns.

Multiple subscriptions

If you have multiple subscriptions then the CLI will work in the context of the active subscription.

Command Output
az account list Lists the available subscriptions
az account show Shows the active subscription, or “context”
az account set --subscription <subscriptionId> Switches to the subscription

If you are constantly switcing between subscriptions then consider adding aliases to the bottom of your ~/.bashrc file, e.g.:

alias vs='az account set --subscription <subscriptionId>; az account show'

You can also specify --subscription on individual CLI commands.


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